ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS SURGERY

Abdominal Wall Hernias

“The prevalence of hernias increases with age, particularly for inguinal, umbilical, and femoral hernias. The likelihood of strangulation and need for hospitalization also increase with aging. Strangulation, the most common serious complication of a hernia”.

The term Hernia is derived from the Latin word for rupture, it is defined as an abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through a defect in its surrounding walls, and these defects most commonly involve the abdominal wall, particularly the inguinal region. In broad terms, most abdominal wall hernias can be separated into inguinal and ventral hernias. Hernias are a common health problem, it is estimated that 5% of the population will develop an abdominal wall hernia in their lifetime.

These sites most commonly include the inguinal, femoral and umbilical areas, the linea alba (midline of the abdomen) and sites of prior surgical incisions.

INGUINAL/GROIN HERNIA

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INCISIONAL/VENTRAL HERNIA

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OTHER VENTRAL HERNIAS

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CLINICALLY, ALL HERNIAS CAN BE:
TYPES OF ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS AND FREQUENCY:
CAUSES OF HERNIAS:

  • Reducible: the contents of the hernia sac can return to the abdominal cavity.
  • Irreducible/Incarcerated: the contents of the hernia sac cannot return spontaneously or manually to the abdominal cavity.
  • Strangulated: the contents besides being irreducible, they have compromised blood supply, which is a serious and potentially fatal complication. This condition requires emergency surgical treatment.

INTESTINE PROTRUDING THROUGH HERNIA DEFECT

 

TYPES OF ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS AND FREQUENCY:

 

  • Groin:
      • Inguinal (75%): direct (35%) and indirect (65%)
      • Femoral (3%)

 

  • Ventral:
    • Umbilical (3 to 5%)
    • Epigastric and hypogastric (10%)
    • Incisional hernias (10%)

CAUSES OF HERNIAS:

  • Risk factors for hernia formation:
    • Obesity   
    • Age
    • Male gender
    • Family history of hernias
    • Sleep apnea
    • Heavy lifting
    • Emphysema
    • Wound infection
    • Diabetes
    • Straining with defecation or urination
    • Pregnancy
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • Chronic coughing

 

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