- Direct and Indirect inguinal hernias
- Femoral hernias
- Bilateral hernias
- Recurrent hernias
- Incapability to use general anesthesia
- Incapability of “reduction” of the hernia contents before surgery or after induction of anesthesia.
- Elevated bleeding risk
- Bleeding <1%
- Hematoma 5%
- Visceral injury <1%
- Wound infection 2%
- Bowel obstruction <0.5%
- Urinary retention 2%
- Nausea and vomiting 8%
- Recurrence 1 – 3%
- Inguinodinea (chronic pain in the groin)1%
**These complications are low in frequency in experienced hands, some of them are patient related and to any other laparoscopic procedure, so this is even lower if the surgeon has training in advanced laparoscopic procedures. It should, moreover, be remembered that many of these complications are transient and can be addressed easily.
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